The Scottish National Party (SNP) won 48 seats, nearly matching its performance in the 2015 election and setting up a showdown between Johnson and its combative leader Nicola Sturgeon.
Johnson, like his predecessor Theresa May, has consistently resisted pressure from the SNP-led administration in Edinburgh for another independence vote.
"We are heading towards a border poll, I can't give you a definitive date, but we need to do the spade work now and prepare ourselves", Sinn Fein leader Mary Lou McDonald said. "It's still my plan to submit an official request before the end of the year for a new independence referendum".
"That's absolutely crucial now and has to be a key priority the next few weeks".
Conservative party chairman James Cleverly told the BBC that Thursday's result was not a mandate for a second independence vote.
A Downing Street spokesman said: "The Prime Minister spoke to First Minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon earlier this evening, where he reiterated his unwavering commitment to strengthening the union". "The 2014 referendum was meant to be a once in a generation referendum".
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"The SNP, before they revert back to these calls for another referendum, should probably think carefully about how they sort out (healthcare) in Scotland and how they reverse the slipping standards in Scottish schools".
It is unlikely anybody in Northern Ireland will have much sympathy for Johnson with the revelations that he lied about there not being customs checks between Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK.
Scottish Labour leader Richard Leonard lamented his party's "devastating" result, putting the defeat down to constitutional issues - a desire for Scottish independence - rather than shifting blame on to Jeremy Corbyn. A Brexit vocal defender, Nigel Dodds of the Democratic Unionist Party, lost his seat.
They will call for "as close as possible a future relationship with the UK" while warning that "the future relationship will have to be based on a balance of rights and obligations and ensure a level playing field" in terms of business and trade rules.
"The Assembly, the European elections and now the House of Commons elections, which show neither nationalists or unionists have a majority anymore in Northern Ireland and there is an expanding centre ground with the Alliance and others so that is a change".
Mr Johnson did not have the parliamentary arithmetic within his own party and his party's previous confidence and supply partners the DUP, who opposed the deal, to ratify the agreement.