Still critical are policies to strengthen immunization, increased funding for CDC to support infection prevention measures, antibiotic stewardship in all health care settings, and increased funding to support research that will further our understanding of resistance and help us evaluate our approaches.
The updated Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States (AR Threats Report) also estimates when antibiotic-resistant bacterium Clostridium difficile (or C. diff) is included, that number exceeds 3 million infections and 48,000 deaths.
"Regardless of important progress, this risk stays our enemy", Dr. Robert Redfield, CDC director, stated in the course of the information convention. Two of them were newly added since 2013. These are added to the three identified in 2013: carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Clostridioides difficile.
The source of the infection for C auris isn't the person who got sick but rather the hospital environment, including catheters, counters and other surfaces.
Overuse of antibiotics is a likely reason for the dramatic rise in resistant infections, the report said.
At the time, the agency estimated that 23,000 people died a year due to antibiotic-resistant infections.
Almost twice as many people have died from infections that don't respond to antibiotics than previously thought, the country's top health officials announced Wednesday, a development that raises the stakes in what is already acknowledged to be a serious threat to public health.
They also flagged ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, which are one of the leading causes of death from drug-resistant germs and make urinary tract infections harder to treat, particularly in women.
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Redfield added that some infections appear to be resistant to all medications created to treat it, killing one in five of those infected with the fungus.
Electronic health data-For the first time, the infection and death estimates for healthcare-associated germs were calculated using electronic health data from hospitals. The report's estimate that those infections led to the deaths of 35,900 people reflects a drop in mortality attributable to the significant investments made in hospital associated infection prevention, but also reflects an increase in the number of community acquired infections and deaths. Though not typically antibiotic-resistant, these bacteria often infect people who are now taking or have recently stopped taking antibiotics.
Another new bacterium on the list of deadliest microbes is Acinetobacter, estimated to have caused 700 deaths from 8,500 antibiotic-resistant infections in the United States in 2017, according to the CDC.
The report cites two worrisome trends: the increasing numbers of resistant infections outside hospitals, including highly drug-resistant gonorrhea; and the increasing ability of drug-resistant microbes to share their unsafe resistance genes with other kinds of bacteria, making those other germs untreatable, as well. "Antibiotics aren't needed for many sinus infections and some ear infections", reports the CDC. A lot of them were prescribed for conditions that don't respond to antibiotics, such as colds, sore throats, flu and other viral illnesses.
"It's not just new antibiotics that we need". Without continued vigilance, this progress may be challenged by the increasing burden of some infections.
- The other new urgent threat is Candida auris, a fungus that can cause life-threatening infections if it gets into the bloodstream.
And infections from resistant group A streptococcus - which causes strep throat and scarlet fever - have quadrupled since the 2013 report to more than 5,000. It spreads easily between hospitalized patients and nursing home residents.
The new report also revealed that the threat of antibiotic-resistant germs is much worse than thought when the alarm was first sounded.