Eoin Morgan set the tone for England's record sixathon when he slogged a free hit for six and followed it up by clearing the boundary over long-on off the very next delivery, from his opposing captain Gulbadin Naib.
Morgan equalled the ODI record for sixes in an innings when he went to 16 with back-to-back blows off Gulbadin Naib, taking him level with Rohit Sharma, Ab de Villiers and Chris Gayle.
The total was England's highest ever at the World Cup, and also a ground record for Old Trafford, breaking India's two-day-old record of 336-5 against Pakistan.
The group game between the highest- and lowest-ranked teams was barely a contest, with Afghanistan finishing 247-8 to slump to their fifth consecutive defeat.
But instead of retiring hurt, the 24-year-old donned a new helmet and carried on to top-score for Afghanistan, with 76 in a lopsided 150-run loss.
Afghanistan look in disarray on and off the field at the World Cup with coach Phil Simmons' Twitter outburst on Wednesday revealing signs of troubles within the team.
On setting a new benchmark for the most maximums in an ODI innings, he said: "I honestly don't know, it's weird, very odd".
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Morgan clobbers record 17 sixes!
The Morgan-inspired carnage ensured England racked up 233 from their final 20 overs but they found life hard going in the opening 10 as Afghanistan restricted them to 46 runs and dismissed James Vince (26) - Vince, into the side as Roy's replacement, caught top-edging a pull.
The hosts rode on Eoin Morgan's 71-ball 148 to amass a mammoth 397-6.
Batting first, England piled on their highest World Cup score of 397-6, with captain Eoin Morgan hitting a one-day worldwide record 17 sixes in his 148, leaving Afghanistan needing 398 to win. But that hasn't involved the 50- or 60-ball hundred. The man who suffered the most from his lethal blade was leg-spinner Rashid Khan, who was taken for seven sixes and a four by the left-hander.
Mark Wood's short ball rattled the Afghaniistan batsman.
Earlier in the match, Morgan, dropped on 28, dominated a third-wicket stand of 189 with Joe Root (88), whose contribution to their partnership was a mere 43.