Many people carried pictures of Khomeini, who died in 1989, and Iran's current Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Mr Trump used Ms Moaiery's photo alongside the caption: "40 years of corruption, 40 years of repression, 40 years of terror".
The regime in Iran has produced only 40 years of failure. "The long-suffering Iranian people deserve a much brighter future", Trump posted on Twitter in both English and Farsi.
In Tehran, crowds streamed in the rain from a dozen of the capital's far-flung neighbourhoods to mass in central Tehran Azadi, or Freedom Square, on Monday, waving Iranian flags and chanting "Death to America" - a chant that has been standard fare at anti-U.S. rallies across Iran.
"This week, Iran marks the 40th anniversary of the Islamic Revolution, and what a 40 years it's been".
Iranian President Hassan Rouhani on Monday laid historical claims to a number of Arabian Gulf countries without naming them.
The US has escalated a clandestine program to sabotage Iranian missiles and rockets as part of an attempt to weaken the Islamic Republic's military and cause economic damage, The New York Times reported Wednesday.
Prices of basic foodstuffs, particularly meat, have soared since President Donald Trump withdrew Washington from the 2015 nuclear deal a year ago and reimposed sanctions.
Iran displayed its ballistic missile capabilities during a parade, including the Zolfaqar, a ground-to-ground missile with a 700 km (435 miles) range and the Qiam, with a range of 800 km, according to Tasnim news agency. "Now it's up to the Iranian regime to change its behavior, and ultimately up to the Iranian people to determine the direction of their country", national security advisor John Bolton tweeted on the anniversary of the upheaval.
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On February 11, 1979, Iran's army declared its neutrality in the dispute between the two sides.
In January, Rouhani said Iran was dealing with its worst economic crisis since the Shah was toppled.
However, analysts say Iran's push to back militants in the wider Mideast and Saudi Arabia's efforts to mobilize the Sunni world against the Shiite power would turn many away.
She added the picture was for her people and not for "men in Washington".
In the backdrop to Monday's marches, the military displayed Iranian-made missiles, which authorities showcase every year during anniversary celebrations and which now have a range of up to 2,000 kilometres (1,250 miles) and are able to Israel and USA military bases in the region.
Yadollah Javani, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards' deputy head for political affairs, said Iran would demolish cities in Israel if the United States attacked.
While she said that she would take pride in the fact that her image would become "a symbol of freedom everywhere in the world", she did not want it to serve as an instrument of USA foreign policy.