Many demonstrators braved a heavy rain and the cold of the Argentine winter waiting outside the Congress building.
In mid-June, Argentina's lower house voted in favour of the bill by just 129 to 125, thanks in part to the anti-abortion President Mauricio Macri's insistence on pushing the bill through the legislature. Some protesters garbage and wooden pallets and threw stones with riot police, who attempted to disperse them with tear gas and water cannon.
Abortion has always been illegal in Argentina: Currently, if a woman is found to have undergone the procedure (in instances other than rape or if the mother's life is in danger), she can be jailed for up to four years.
The Senate rejected the proposed bill 38 to 31, with two abstentions.
Backers of the measure said legalizing abortion would save the life of many women who now turn to unsafe illegal abortions.
She added that the Senate had "therefore chose to agree on a system which forces women, girls and others who can become pregnant to undergo clandestine and unsafe abortions".
While abortion-rights campaigners seemed to have a chance of success a few weeks ago, leaders of the Catholic Church spoke out against abortion, leading to senators from conservative provinces to vote against it, reported The New York Times.
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Meanwhile, at the city's Metropolitan Cathedral, a "mass for life" was held in support of keeping laws unchanged.
"It's not about religious beliefs but about a humanitarian reason", Cardinal Mario Poli, the archbishop of Buenos Aires, told churchgoers. We will continue to stand with women in Argentina.
Some resort to using a clothes hanger wire or knitting needle to break the amniotic sac inside the womb, others take toxic mixtures or herbs that can prove fatal.
US -based organizations such as Live Action, Human Defense Initiative and the National Right to Life Committee expressed their opposition to the bill as well.
Pope Francis this year had denounced abortion as the "white glove" equivalent of the Nazi-era eugenics program and urged families "to accept the children that God gives them".
Jose Miguel Vivanco, director for the Americas at Human Rights Watch, said that Argentina had a "historic opportunity" to protect the rights of women.
Abortion rights supporters wore green scarves while anti-abortion activists donned baby blue.
Argentina is an overwhelmingly Catholic country. Had the proposal been adopted, Argentina would have become the largest Latin American nation to legalize abortion, after Cuba.