The data and calculations were submitted to the Minor Planet Centre of the International Astronomical Union, the scientific organization that assigns names to celestial bodies, which confirmed they are new moons.
Despite being overtaken by Saturn, Jupiter still holds the title for having the biggest moon, named Ganymede, which is nearly half the size of Earth.
All of these moons are around 5 km (3 mi) wide, and one of them is the most distant moon circling Saturn. Some 17 of these 20 moons orbit Saturn backwards, or in retrograde.
Carnegie Institute of Science astronomer Scott Sheppard and his team used the Subaru telescope in Hawaii to find the moons.
All the moons in the group (the ones named already are Ijiraq, Kiviuq, Paaliaq, Siarnaq and Tarqeq) orbit at an angle to Saturn's orbit and are thought to have originally been part of a single object about 40 kilometres wide that broke into fragments. Scott Sheppard said that "Using some of the largest telescopes in the world, we are now completing the inventory of small moons around the giant planets".
"These moons are the remnants of the objects that helped form the planets, so by studying them we are learning about what the planets formed from", Dr Sheppard wrote.
Last year, Sheppard discovered 12 new moons orbiting Jupiter and Carnegie hosted an online contest to name five of them. All of the newly discovered moons take between two and three years to travel once around Saturn.
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It is harder spotting mini moons around Saturn than it is Jupiter, Dr Sheppard said, given how much farther Saturn is. The IAU lists 79 Jovian moons, including the dozen newbies that Sheppard and his colleagues reported previous year.
A third moon is part of a similar group called the Norse group that will be given names from Norse mythology.
Space enthusiasts can help scientists name the new moons.
Additionally, researchers say the moons were likely created after the planet was mostly formed given their proximity.
In the early days of the solar system, when Saturn was still just forming, a cloud of dust and gas surrounded the planet. They are known as the Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, which named after mythological figures derived from these respective cultures' traditions.
The newly reported discoveries mean Jupiter is back in the No. 2 position when it comes to tallies of known moons. So they were captured into orbits around the planet rather than falling into the planet.
A number of other potential Saturn moons spotted in 2004 have not been confirmed as moons yet. Meanwhile, the success of the naming contests is a testament to modern astronomy and how the public is becoming involved in the discovery process like never before. Sheppard and the Carnegie Institution have set up a similar contest for the Saturnian moons, with a deadline of December 6 for submissions. The only rule is that they must be named after giants from Norse, Gallic or Inuit mythology, he said, which rules out Moony McRingface at least. And even if it does have fewer satellites than Saturn, it will always have the most inhospitable radiation environment!