"Given government policy [military expenditure and incarceration] are more likely to increase ... we might see Australia drop one or maybe two places in the next few years", Mr Killelea said.
External peace is measured by the following: military expenditure as a percentage of GDP, armed services personnel rate, United Nations peacekeeping funding, nuclear and heavy weapons capabilities, weapons exports, refugees and IDPs, neighbouring countries relations, external conflicts fought, and deaths from external conflicts.
The results this year show that the average level of global peacefulness improved very slightly in the 2019 GPI.
More than 100 million people across those countries - South Sudan, Iraq, Libya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, North Korea, Nigeria and Mexico - are at risk. China, Bangladesh, and India, score in the bottom half of the GPI and have significant exposure to climate hazards, with 393 million people in high climate hazard areas, the report observed.
Regionally, sub-Saharan Africa has the weakest coping capacity for climate hazards, which could exacerbate violent conflicts.
That's about 14% of the GDP of the South African economy and that amounts to $1,700 per person.
Almost a billion people live in areas at high risk from global warming, and about 40 per cent of them are in countries already struggling with conflict, said the Australia-based Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), which compiled the Global Peace Index. Since 2008 global peacefulness has deteriorated by 3.78 per cent, the report revealed.
The Institute for Economics and Peace's annual Global Peace Index published on June 12 ranked Iceland as the world's most peaceful country for the 11th year in a row. This was the first time that the index improved in the last five years.
Chinese ship hit, sank PH vessel in West PH Sea
But the Philippines has suspended oil and gas exploration in the area due to past Chinese protests. The Filipino fishing boat GIMVER was anchored at the time when it was hit by the Chinese vessel.
Chernobyl tourists urged to be respectful after photo controversy
The disaster zone has been open to tourists since the late 1990s but has massively increased in popularity over the last decade. One Chernobyl tour agency reported a 40% rise in trip bookings since the series, made by HBO , began in May, Reuters reported.
Tanushree calls out ‘corrupt’ police for protecting Nana Patekar
In a statement to the media, Nitin added, "If police files any B or C classification of summary report, that can not be final". She also claimed her prospect of getting a "dream job in Manhattan" was quashed by the "web of lies' the internet threw up".
The Institute for Economics and Peace gauges the on-going domestic and worldwide conflict, safety and security in society, and the degree of militarisation in 163 countries and territories by taking into account 23 indicators. These indicators are grouped into three key domains: Ongoing Conflict, Safety and Security, and Militarisation.
Bhutan ranks high as the 15th most peaceful country in the world, so South Asia's rankings improved too.
According to the GPI, the greatest increase in peacefulness occurred in the Eurasia region, followed by the Middle East and North Africa.
Mohib Iqbal, a research fellow at the institute, told RFE/RL that Afghanistan "is now the world's most violent conflict with the highest number of deaths from war and terrorism" after Syria "experienced a decrease in violence after the defeat of [the extremist group Islamic State] and the localization of the ongoing conflict in the country".
The index is based on 23 indicators that included internal and external conflicts, military spending, terrorism, murder, and other crime rates. Russian Federation and Eurasia, Asia-Pacific, and MENA recorded improvements across all three GPI domains. However, it remains far less peaceful than 10 years ago. Clearly it is good news that state sponsored terror has declined markedly over the last decade, with 62 countries improving their scores while only 42 deteriorated.
The report also analyses the security risks posed by climate change.
"However, despite improvement, the world remains considerably less peaceful now than a decade ago, with the average level of peacefulness deteriorating by almost four per cent since 2008", the report claimed. The cost of violence, the Institute estimated for the year 2018 in the world to 14.1 trillion USA dollars (the equivalent of about 12.5 trillion euros). The largest improvement was in armed conflict, owing to a fall in the intensity of conflict in Syria, Colombia and Ukraine. Syria suffered the worst at 67 per cent.