Back in 1960, oceanographer Don Walsh was the first to make it down to the trench successfully, reaching about 35,814 feet (10,916 m).
After spending hours crisscrossing the bottom of the Challenger Deep, collecting video evidence of different wildlife, geological formations and man-made objects, Vescovo stopped for a second.
They also discovered brightly colored rocky outcrops that were possibly created by microbes on the seabed, according to the BBC.
A plastic bag and lolly wrappers have been found at the bottom of the world's deepest natural trench during a record-breaking dive.
The team also found what they think are four new species of amphipods, or shell-less crustaceans.
The Pacific Ocean dive is the fourth in Five Deeps Expedition's plan to dive to the bottom of each of the world's five oceans.
Humanity's impact on the planet was also evident with the discovery of plastic pollution.
Making multiple trips almost 11 kilometres, to the ocean floor - one of them four hours in duration - Vescovo set a record for the deepest solo dive in history, his team said.
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"It is nearly indescribable how excited all of us are about achieving what we just did", Mr Vescovo said after arriving in Guam after the completion of the dives.
The dive was part of the The Five Deeps Expedition, a project sponsored by Caladan Oceanic, a private marine-technology development company owned by Vescovo, attempting to explore the deepest regions of each of the world's five oceans, according to The Five Deeps Expedition's website.
But Vescovo and his team are not stopping now, with another dive of the Horizon Deep within the Tonga Trench in the South Pacific Ocean coming up next.
Next up is a trip to the bottom of the as-yet unexplored Molloy Deep in the Arctic Ocean, due to be completed in August 2019.
The team said its scientists were going to perform tests on the creatures found to determine the percentage of plastics found in them.
After the conclusion of the dives, the submersible - built to withstand 1000 bars of pressure - will be given to researchers at science institutions to continue exploring the ocean's depths.
As well as working under pressure, the sub has to operate in the pitch black and near freezing temperatures. Previously, he climbed the highest peaks on each of the planet's seven continents.
The dive was the first for The Five Deeps Expedition, funded by Vescovo, and is being filmed for a Discovery Channel documentary.
"We also had to design new rigs that would go inside Victor's submersible and capture every moment of Victor's dives". The group is using a submersible called Limiting Factor to complete its challenge.
Once thought to be remote, desolate areas, the deep sea teems with life.