A Russian resolution expressing concern over threats to use force against Venezuela was also voted down, receiving only four votes in the U.N. Security Council.
Ahead of the Security Council votes on Thursday, French U.N. Ambassador Francois Delattre, in support of the US -drafted resolution, said it "does not represent a legal basis for a use of force, nor an attempt to undermine the sovereignty of Venezuela".
Guaido said the leftist "regime" of President Nicolas Maduro was "weak, lacking support in Venezuela and worldwide recognition".
Guaido, head of Venezuela's National Assembly, last month invoked constitutional provisions to assume an interim presidency, arguing that Maduro's re-election a year ago was fraudulent.
The U.S. draft resolution garnered the minimum nine votes, forcing Russian Federation and China to cast vetoes.
It expresses concern at threats to use force against Venezuela and interfere in the country's domestic affairs and reaffirms the government's primary role in initiating worldwide assistance.
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Brazil's President Jair Bolsonaro, left, and Venezuela's self-proclaimed interim president Juan Guaido smile during a joint statement in Brasilia, Brazil, Thursday, Feb.28, 2019. Venezuela's Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza is warning of the threat of war, while President Nicolas Maduro is urging troops to stay on high alert, saying the offer of worldwide aid is a pretext for incursions.
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said Washington is still working on plans to get humanitarian aid delivered to Venezuela.
Elliott Abrams, the US envoy for Venezuela, rebuked the Russian envoy, saying, "I reject from start to finish, I reject from top to bottom, accusations of military interventions from a country that is occupying the territory of Georgia and Ukraine". He spoke en route to the Philippines from this week's summit in Vietnam between North Korean leader Kim Jong Un and President Trump.
"We are hopeful that over the next couple of weeks, we can really begin to make a dent in that problem", Pompeo said.
But he faces possible arrest if he returns to Venezuela for disobeying a Supreme Court order that he should not leave the country pending an investigation. "My role and my duty is to be in Caracas, despite the risks and regardless of what that implies". Russia, China, Cuba, Bolivia and a number of other countries have meanwhile voiced their support for the legitimate government of Maduro. "This man-made crisis has extended well beyond Venezuela's borders and threatens to destabilize the region", USA special envoy for Venezuela Elliott Abrams told the council.