Seven people were injured in Israel after suspected rockets struck deep inside the country on Monday.
"In light of the security events I chose to cut short my visit to the U.S.", Netanyahu said, calling the rocket fire a "heinous attack".
"I will meet President Trump in a few hours and just after that I will return to Israel to lead closely the operations".
A damaged house that was hit by a rocket can be seen north of Tel Aviv.
Monday's incident comes after two rockets were fired from Gaza towards Tel Aviv - also rare - on March 14.
Israel holds Hamas responsible for all attacks from Gaza, controlled by the Islamist group since 2007.
The rocket landed in the village of Mishmeret about 25 kilometers (about 15 miles) north of Tel Aviv, making this the farthest a rocket has been fired into Israel since the 2014 war fought between Israel and Hamas.
The house hit was located in the community of Mishmeret, police said.
The Magen David Adom ambulance service said it was treating six of the building's occupants for wounds.
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Netanyahu, in Washington to meet President Trump, held emergency consultations with military officials back in Israel and made a decision to cut his visit short, cancelling a planned address to the AIPAC conference and meetings with congressional leaders.
Their organizers have said the protests aim to achieve the "return" of Palestinian refugees and their descendants to lands that are now part of Israel, and pressure the Jewish state to lift its restrictions on the movement of people and goods into and out of the coastal enclave.
Many still live in one of Gaza's eight refugee camps, the report said.
Benjamin Netanyahu said the attack would draw a strong response.
Mishmeret is more than 80 kilometres from the Gaza Strip and rocket fire from the Palestinian enclave at that distance is rare.
There was no immediate response from Hamas but its ally in Gaza, Islamic Jihad, said "we warn the Zionist enemy from committing an aggression against the Gaza Strip".
Hamas, which seeks to destroy Israel, is planning a major march on Saturday, March 30 to mark one year since the start of the protests, amid Israeli concerns over potential major violence.
The Jewish state will "respond forcefully" against Hamas after a rocket was launched from inside Gaza into Israel, Netanyahu said, according to local media. The military had refused to comment on the reports at the time.
Palestinians wave Palestinian flags as they try to climb the security fence on the border between Israel and the Gaza Strip, east of Gaza City, on March 22, 2019.