The dead included a woman and a child who tried to escape by jumping from a fifth-floor window of the 65-room hotel in the shopping district of Karol Bagh.
Indian Twitter user Vikas Tripathi, sharing the video, wrote: "Death toll likely to rise as people jumped off the building to save themselves".
Deputy fire chief Virenda Singh said that 35 people had been rescued adding: 'Seventeen people are no more, they died because of suffocation, not fire'. Those injured have been sent to hospital.
Fire Officer Vipin Kental said, "The cause of the fire yet to be investigated". Seventeen people have died, majority of suffocation. The fire has already been controlled and the cooling process was underway.
The Delhi government has ordered a magisterial probe into the matter, home minister Satyendar Jain said.
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Rescue and police personnel at the site of a massive blaze at Hotel Arpit Palace on Tuesday, after the fire had been doused.
Fire fighters searched rooms and toilets to ensure that no one was left trapped, Mishra said.
Most of the victims were sleeping when the fire broke out, and it was believed to have been caused by a short circuit, according to media reports.
"There was wooden panelling on corridors because of which people could not use corridors to evacuate", another fire officer told reporters.
Delhi minister Satyendra Jain told the NDTV news website that the Arpit Palace had built a fifth floor with a kitchen and a terrace, even though the owners only had permission to build four storeys.