The plane went down near Fath airport, near Karaj in the central Iranian province of Alborz.
A flight engineer survived and was taken to hospital, the army said in a statement carried by the Fars news agency.
Authorities did not immediately offer a reason for the crew's decision to land at Fath Airport, which is some 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) southwest of Payam.
Fire immediately engulfed the aircraft after it skidded off a runway and crashed into a wall separating the air field from a residential neighborhood.
"We do not know yet whether it was an Iranian or foreign cargo plane", a local official told TV.
It was not immediately clear who owned the plane.
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It showed footage of burning wreckage in a wooded area.
Iranian state television showed a plume of smoke rising from the crash site.
A spokeswoman for Kyrgyzstan's Manas airport said the plane, en route from Kyrgyzstan's Manas airport, belonged to Iran's Payam Air.
Saha Airlines' Boeing 707s suffered a previous fatal crash in April 2005, when a flight coming from the Kish island crash-landed at Mehrabad Airport in Tehran, killing three passengers.
At least seven people have died in a cargo plane crash near the Iranian capital, Tehran, media have reported.