Morsi and other co-defendants face charges of damaging and setting fire to prison buildings, murder and attempted murder, and looting prison weapons depots while allowing prisoners from the Hamas, Lebanon's Hezbollah, jihadists, and other criminals to break out of jails.
Mohamed Mursi, the Islamist president who won Egypt's first democratic election in 2013 but was toppled a year later after protests prompted the army to remove him, was also in court.
File: A picture taken from the southern Gaza Strip shows Egyptian soldiers using bulldozers as they demolish houses in search of tunnels on the border with Egypt and the southern Gaza Strip the Rafah on March 17, 2014.
After swearing the oath, Mubarak asked to be granted permission from the Egyptian president and the commandership of the Egyptian Armed Forces before revealing to the court information related to the tunnels between Gaza and Egypt, so as not to be violating the law, according to Ahram.
Mubarak refrained from answering many questions, saying he knows "sensitive details that were never made public", and that he needs a permission from the Armed Forces before he speaks. However, in November 2016, the Court of Cassation, Egypt's final recourse for appeals in criminal cases, annulled the sentence and ordered a retrial of the defendants.
However, the head judge in the trial Mohamed Sherine told Mubarak that the court is seeking information not related to national security issues, and instructed Mubarak to answer questions.
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Mr Morsi and senior members of the Muslim Brotherhood were in a cage in the courtroom as they heard his evidence.
Mubarak told the court that the tunnels between Gaza and Egypt had existed long before the 25 January revolution and that they were mostly used to transfer food commodities and other goods. Therefore, he requested that he be granted permission from the current president, el-Sisi.
"What happened at the trial [i.e., Mubarak's testimony] was an attempt to discredit and tarnish the uprising's image", Brotherhood spokesman Talaat Fahmi told a foreign-based Egyptian television channel late Wednesday.
Sissi has since overseen a massive crackdown on Morsi's supporters, jailing thousands of them along with secular activists behind the 2011 uprising. He was acquitted in several retrials since Mursi's ouster, except in a fraud case that also involved his two sons, for which he was sentenced to time already served. The chief judge adjourned the hearings until January 24.
Since then, Morsi has been charged with a number of offenses, including incitement over the slaughter of protesters outside his palace in 2012, his escape from prison in 2011, espionage and more.