Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez demanded assurances that the future of the disputed British territory of Gibraltar would be settled through direct talks with Madrid.
But Spain wants to retain what it sees as its right to negotiate the future on Gibraltar with Britain on a bilateral basis, giving it an effective veto.
Prime Minister Theresa May told parliament that Britain would not agree to exclude Gibraltar from negotiations on the future relationship with the EU.
"So today I regret that I have to say that a pro-Western government like the Spanish will vote against Brexit unless changes are made (at an extraordinary summit in Brussels on Sunday)", he said. The Brexiteers want a clean break with the bloc and argue that the close trade ties called for in the agreement will leave Britain a vassal state, bound to European Union rules it has no say in making.
"It's no surprise that we are seeing the Spanish government raise issues at the last minute", complained Gibraltar's chief minister Fabian Picardo.
Sammy Wilson, the DUP's Brexit spokesperson, told the that the deal means that "the government has not honored its side of the bargain, [and] we tonight tried to spell out some of the consequences of that". "We want to get a deal that works for the whole United Kingdom family", a spokesperson said. Anti-Europe Conservatives have savaged the divorce deal, which they say keeps Britain too close to the EU.
"She said that the United Kingdom and government of Gibraltar looked forward to these discussions continuing as we discuss the future relationship".
Spain's Foreign Minister Josep Borrell voiced frustration with the UK's European Union withdrawal agreement on Monday (19 November), complaining that the Spanish authorities had not been briefed on the details of Article 184 of the agreement.
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Madrid maintains its claim to the land, which was ceded to the British crown in 1713.
This seems to be enough for British negotiators, who insist that the Withdrawal Agreement covers Gibraltar.
"We will need to have agreed beforehand on the political declaration on the future relationship and we are not there yet", he said.
While none of the opposition motions passed, the shadow minister for the Cabinet Office, Jon Trickett, said that the vote signaled that "we no longer have a functioning government".
The EU is trying to discourage Britain from any renegotiation of the draft treaty, while also seeking to assuage concerns expressed by some of the remaining 27 member states.
Its position could threaten the withdrawal agreement, which must be approved by 20 of the 27 European Union countries and at least 65 percent of the European Union population.
After Tuesday's meetings in Madrid, the Gibraltar Government said the memorandums and the tax agreement were now complete "subject only to text stabilisation, legal checks and minor clarifications".