Its report said pollution levels were slowly improving in European Union countries but remained far higher than European Union and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. In low- or middle-income countries, almost 98% of children below the age of five are exposed to the extremely harmful particulate matter PM2.5.
The report on released on Monday said about 98 per cent of children under the age of five in low- and middle-income countries were exposed to air pollution.
Last week, the CPCB recommended that people avoid heavy workouts, try to get themselves less exposed to toxic air, and cut down on the use of private cars at least for the next 10 days.
The European Union's environmental agency says air pollution is slowly improving across the continent but still exceeds the bloc's limits and guidelines from the United Nations health agency.
Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health's Prof Jonathan Grigg stated that invisible toxins from air pollution get in children's bodies through their lungs, hindering growth of lungs, adversely influencing other organs and causing asthma.
Stubble burning in the northern states of Punjab and Haryana contributed 32% of Delhi's overall pollution on Saturday, according to a report by the country's System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR).
Together, household air pollution from cooking and ambient (outside) air pollution cause more than 50% of acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries.
During Diwali a year ago, Delhi's air quality index reached 604 - more than 24 times higher than the level the World Health Organization deems safe.
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Environmental group Climate Trends, based here, says most Indian cities, unlike New Delhi, do not have an emergency response plan to tackle air pollution.
The WHO report cited a case study that investigated whether exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy was associated with low birth weight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child cohort in Tamil Nadu. Air pollution also impacts neurodevelopment and cognitive ability and can trigger asthma, and childhood cancer.
Officials estimated in the report out Monday that 1 in 10 deaths among children under age 5 are caused by air pollution.
More than 40 per cent of the world's entire population is exposed to harmful levels of air pollution.
The EEA study also revealed that the highest concentrations of PM2.5 are in northern Italy, Poland, the Balkans and Turkey.
In addition, policies need to be implemented to decrease air pollution.
Meanwhile, better waste management can reduce the amount of waste that is burned and thereby reducing community air pollution, while the exclusive use of clean technologies and fuels for household cooking, heating and lighting can drastically improve the air quality within homes and in the surrounding community.