Francesco Molinari, of Italy, won the 147th British Open in Carnoustie, Scotland on Sunday.
Via ESPN Stats and Information, it was the first time Woods held the lead of a golf major on the final day since the 2009 PGA Championship. Jordan Spieth cost himself by failing to make a single birdie.
On a day that was ideal for low scoring, Woods let rip with his driver and tucked into the birdie buffet with his red-hot putter, briefly grabbing a share of the lead - something the American had not done at a major since the 2013 Masters. Six were still tied on the back nine.
Through all that, Molinari never flinched.
Molinari, who had won twice and finished second two times in the last couple of months, began the day at six under and did not make his move until holing a birdie after 13 successive pars.
"Just disbelief, to be honest", the 35-year-old said.
"Very proud of today, obviously playing with Tiger was another challenge because of the crowds, but I felt really good coming here this morning and felt ready for a challenge".
"I feel like my game's in good shape. That's why I went to the putting green because I probably would have felt sick watching on TV", he added after following in the footsteps of Spieth, who won previous year at Royal Birkdale.
Up to that point he had been overshadowed by his playing partner, who made the turn in the outright lead only to lose momentum dropping three shots in two holes.
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McIlroy, who grew up watching Woods, said the 14-time major champion is not feared like he was during his prime. While Woods was getting off to a hot start, his fellow competitors were going the opposite direction.
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Schauffele earned his spot in that three-way tie after a 67 that contained six birdies. "How much did you pay?" one writer asked. Jordan Spieth set the tone pulling driver on the 396-yard opening hole and sending it bouncing and rolling to 10 feet for eagle.
"Oh, it was a blast", said Woods, who was also delighted to have had his children see him perform well after years of watching him struggle. The 4-shot final-round deficit was his closest to the lead in a major since the 2013 Open at Muirfield, where he was 2 back but tied for sixth. Then Molinari, all day a quiet killer, knocked his approach even closer - effectively knocking Woods out of the tournament.
Schauffele had to hole out a wedge on the final hole to force a playoff, and the ball checked up well short.
"It's been a tough fight", Molinari said modestly.
Schauffele is a future major victor in the making but he, along with Kevin Kisner and Kevin Chappell made one or two errors yesterday that they may not have made with more experience of links golf. "This time, it's me".
All four runners-up had plenty of reason for hope on a warm, windy afternoon that put plenty of bite back into Carnoustie.
But he was one of just two in the 79-player field who failed to make birdie, shooting 76 and sliding from a three-way tie atop the leaderboard at 9 under at the start into a tie for ninth by the end. Spieth hit into a gorse bush and made double-bogey on the par-5 sixth. He duffed his chip, then three-putted from off the green. He bogeyed 12. One birdie on 14 got him back to five under; Rory McIlroy had eagled that hole to get to six under and grab a share of the lead. On the tenth hole, an aggressive shot out of a fairway pot bunker landed near the edge of the green.
It capped off the best stretch of golf in his career.
A two-time European Ryder Cup player, he has been in fine form this season with a first PGA Tour win - and by eight shots - and victory in the European Tour's flagship BMW PGA event at Wentworth.